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RULE 1.1

Compliance with the Law*

A judge shall comply with the law.

RULE 1.2

Promoting Confidence in the Judiciary

A judge should act at all times in a manner thatpromotes-and shall not undermine-public confidence in the independence*integrity,* and impartiality* of the judiciary and shall avoid impropriety* andthe appearance of impropriety.


[I] Public confidence in the judiciary is eroded by improperconduct and conduct that creates the appearance of impropriety. This principleapplies to both the professional and personal conduct of a judge.

[2] A judge should expect to be the subject of public scrutinythat might be viewed as burdensome if applied to other citizens, and mustaccept the restrictions imposed by the Code.

[3] Conduct that compromises or appears to compromise theindependence, integrity, and impartiality of a judge undermines publicconfidence in the judiciary. Because it is not practicable to list all suchconduct, the Rule is necessarily cast in general terms.

[4] Judges should participate in activities that promote ethicalconduct among judges and lawyers, support professionalism within the judiciaryand the legal profession, and promote access to justice for all.

[5] Actual improprieties include violations of law or provisionsof this Code. The test for appearance of impropriety is whether the conduct wouldcreate in reasonable minds a perception that the judge engaged in impropriety.

[6] A judge should initiate and participate in community outreachactivities for the purpose of promoting public understanding of and confidencein the administration of justice. In conducting such activities, the judge mustact in a manner consistent with this Code.

RULE 1.3

Avoiding Abuse of the Prestige of JudicialOffice

judge shall not abuse the prestige of judicial office to advancethe personal or economic interests* of the judge or others or allow others todo so.


[1] It is improper for a judge to abuse or attempt to abuse his orher position to gain personal advantage or deferential treatment of any kind.For example, it would be improper for a judge to allude to his or her judicialstatus to gain favorable treatment in encounters with traffic officials.Similarly, a judge must not use judicial letterhead to gain an advantage inconducting his or her personal business.

[2] A judge may provide a reference or recommendation for anindividual based upon the judge?s personal knowledge, and if there is nolikelihood that the reference or recommendation would reasonably be perceivedas an attempt to exert pressure by reason of the judicial office. A judgemay provide a general letter of recommendation assessing the qualifications andexperience of an individual who has worked under the judge?s supervision.  Thegeneral letter of recommendation may be submitted to any prospective employer,including individuals and entities that regularly appear before the judge?scourt.  In making such references or recommendations, the judge mayrefer to his or her judicial office and use official letterhead only foremployment or educational opportunities.

[3] Judges may participate in the process of judicial selection byencouraging individuals to apply for judicial office and communicating withappointing authorities and screening committees,

[4] Special considerations arise when judges write or contributeto publications of for-profit entities, whether related or unrelated to thelaw. A judge should not permit anyone associated with the publication of suchmaterials to exploit the judge?s office in a manner that violates this Rule orother applicable law. In contracts for publication of a judge?s writing, thejudge should retain sufficient control over the advertising to avoid suchexploitation.